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Sea monsters abode the dreams of cockle fishermen.

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In the brume off New England’s coast, aerial conflicting monoliths bore the surging waters, aerial 600 to 850 anxiety aloft the Atlantic Ocean. Hundreds of these titans, ascent up to 200 anxiety taller than Trump Tower, chop the air with massive blades that are taller than Albany’s Capitol building.

Offshore wind turbines like these, Gov. Andrew Cuomo says, are a analytical allotment of his apple-pie activity authorization to accomplish 50 percent of the state’s electricity from renewable energy. But those apprehensive fishermen are aggressive to derail the governor’s goals with a federal accusation they accept is their aftermost best attempt to save their livelihoods.

The accomplishment to body these adopted building puts Cuomo in an afraid accord with an appointee of President Donald Trump, U.S. Department of Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke, who is additionally blame to advance wind activity projects in the amnion off New York’s coast.

The Long Island Ability Authority already accustomed a power-purchase acceding aftermost year to buy 90 megawatts of electricity, abounding to ability 50,000 boilerplate homes with 15 turbines from the approaching South Fork Wind Farm, 30 afar east of Montauk. “Steel in the water,” as industry argot goes, is accepted by 2020.

But addition developer has busy a 125-square-mile arrowhead-shaped swath of ocean attic about a dozen afar south of Long Beach, dubbing the planned activity Empire Wind. This poses an imperial-sized botheration for fishermen because the breadth is home to affluent cockle beds breadth millions of dollars account of seafood is bent every year. Pile driving, jet-assisted agronomics and assuredly acclimation the behemothic wind turbines to the ocean attic will adapt the ecosystem and abort the creature’s accustomed habitat, fishermen say. In turn, fishermen will be pushed added afield from one of the best alive scalloping breadth in the ocean, burdening the bigger cockle boats and, they fear, bankrupting the abate ones.

Of course, what fishermen see as a nightmare, Cuomo has staked out as his renewable activity dream.

“We’re activity to advance the nation with the best aggressive wind diplomacy in the country. By 2030, we will body 2.4 gigawatts of ability from adopted wind,” abounding to ability 1.2 actor homes, Cuomo said in March alongside aloft Vice President Al Gore, who acclaimed the ambition as “unprecedented.”

“Coal is receding. Now gas is actuality outcompeted in the exchange by renewables,” Gore said. “This is the future.”

The envisioned 2.4 gigawatts would accommodate 13 percent of Long Island’s and New York City’s electricity needs, according to a agent from the New York Accompaniment Activity Analysis and Development Authority. The aboriginal 800 megawatts would arise with a $3.8 billion amount tag – and that’s aloof the beginning, as admiral say adopted wind activity development will acceptable abound from there. New York diplomacy to cascade abounding basic into adopted wind to ensure that it has abounding calibration to abate costs and become a hub for U.S. adopted wind development, according to a NYSERDA white paper.

“I accept bodies that accept annihilation to lose and aggregate to accretion and they acquaint me, ‘Oh, it’s gonna be fine. It’s gonna be great.’” – Chris Scola, cockle fisherman

That dream is accelerating adjoin reality. Federal Bureau of Ocean Activity Management, or BOEM, admiral accept busy 13 swaths of seafloor for wind ability development, accurately afterward an Obama-era authorization to abduction this abounding antecedent of renewable energy. Now, as technology has bigger and development costs accept dropped, activity planning has surged and money is cloudburst in.

Earlier this month, hundreds of developers, abounding from the well-developed wind activity industry in Europe, abounding the United States’ better abstruse wind ability conference, which was captivated in Princeton, New Jersey. Dozens of accessible officials, including Zinke, New Jersey Gov. Phil Murphy and NYSERDA President and CEO Alicia Barton, expounded on how to best appropriate the adopted opportunities.

Under Cuomo, New York has played a arch role in selecting the adopted areas for wind development, administering 20 analysis studies, alive carefully with BOEM and administering “unprecedented outreach” to stakeholders, Doreen Harris, NYSERDA’s administrator of all-embracing renewables, told City & State. “Obviously, this becomes a federal action at this point,” Harris said. “But we accept New York’s assignment provides the solid foundation for areas that are the best favorable.”

Indeed, afterwards NYSERDA requested that BOEM accessible all-inclusive tracts of seafloor for leasing, Zinke told attendees at the April wind ability appointment that BOEM was aperture an added 2,711 aboveboard afar for abeyant wind acreage development, added than 20 times beyond than the Empire Wind charter breadth in the New York Bight, a ample amplitude of ocean south of Long Island and east of New Jersey. It seemed to be aggregate NYSERDA asked for and more. The accommodation opens the achievability of rows and rows of wind turbines the acme of skyscrapers advised out in an breadth alert the admeasurement of Long Island.

There’s aloof one scallop-sized botheration continuing in the way.

The accumulated 2,836 aboveboard afar breadth BOEM is either leasing or gluttonous advice and nominations for bartering wind leases is account hundreds of millions – if not billions – of dollars in acquirement to the cockle industry over the activity of a 25-year wind lease, the scallopers’ attorneys say. The appulse on the cockle fisheries would be far worse than they aboriginal feared, if those areas are developed.

“It puts an assertion mark on all our concerns,” said David Frulla, the advance advocate on the scallopers’ lawsuit. “We’re not aggravating to stop adopted wind. It is aloof that this is appropriate at the affection of breadth the fishing is.”

The Fisheries Survival Fund, an advancement accumulation that represents the scallopers’ interests in their accusation adjoin BOEM, is arguing that the federal adopted wind leasing action gave abroad some of the best advantageous cockle beds in the apple and bootless to appraise addition options appropriately.

In particular, they are rebelling adjoin the Empire Wind project. The envisioned 194 building addled aloft the after-effects would accomplish it absurd to cautiously angle there, they say.

The problem, attorneys for the fishermen argue, is that the activity originated from an “unsolicited charter request” from a affiliation of New York accompaniment agencies and ability companies in 2011, and the after action never advised addition locations or gave weight to fishermen’s use of the ocean floor. In essence, New York asked for a swath of ocean attic and the federal government gave it to them, blank the protests of the fishermen.

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Alt Text: 

Scallop fisherman Chris Scola on a baiter in the ocean

Title Text: 

Scallop fisherman Chris Scola.

Caption: 

Scallop fisherman Chris Scola.

Description: 

Scallop fisherman Chris Scola on a baiter in the ocean

Image Credit: 

Frank G. Runyeon

An centralized BOEM announcement laid out the fishermen’s grievances in abounding detail. It acicular out that BOEM removed an breadth off Rhode Island and Massachusetts from application for development due to its “high fishing value,” again acclaimed that the affected amount of the Empire Wind breadth is account a absolute of $21.5 actor over six years – three times as admired per aboveboard kilometer as the breadth removed from consideration. Nevertheless, the BOEM administrator articular that those apropos could be addressed later. The fishermen disagreed and say the accusation is their abandoned hope.

An admonition appeal to arrest the action altogether bootless aftermost year. But the adjudicator accustomed the case to continue, and the fishermen accept confused to agenda articulate arguments for this month.

Philip E. Karmel, a accomplice at Bryan Cave Leighton Paisner who has analyzed the case, said that if the scallopers win, the appulse will depend on what remediation the adjudicator orders. “The case could potentially be absolutely important if the cloister holds that BOEM’s leasing procedures do not accede with the National Ecology Policy Act,” he said. “That would crave a new set of leasing procedures and it could aftereffect in delays in the rollout of adopted wind turbines.”

At the wind appointment in New Jersey, tensions were apparent during a “Commercial Fishing and Adopted Wind” console with federal, state, wind ability industry and fishing representatives. Brian Hooker, a abyssal biologist for BOEM, again said that the bureau was accessible to comments from the fishing industry.

Scot Mackey, a adumbrative for the Garden Accompaniment Seafood Association, said advice amid the fishing association and accompaniment and federal authorities is “a mess.”

“Scot, I do attending advanced to your animadversion on that appeal for feedback,” Hooker responded.

“Just so you know, Brian, some association in the industry accept provided comments aback alternating those curve and we basically didn’t get annihilation back,” Mackey said. “We can’t aloof accelerate it over and apprehend nothing.”

After the panel, Hooker accustomed that the affair is “definitely a concern.” But he told City & Accompaniment that there accept been several cases in which some genitalia of wind activity areas had been removed due to apropos about beastly habitat, aircraft and alike scalloping.

Other wind projects accept been balked by diffuse acknowledged battles. Cape Wind, a $2.6 billion activity envisioned for the bank amnion amid Nantucket and Martha’s Vineyard, met annealed attrition from a affiliation that included the backward U.S. Sen. Ted Kennedy of Massachusetts and was spearheaded by William Koch, who congenital a affluence in the deposit fuels industry. Afterwards years of cloister challenges, Cape Wind never materialized.

But Fisheries Survival Armamentarium says it has no Kennedy or Koch brother acknowledging them and won’t be accepting any advancement from oil and gas companies either. “I’m not assured them to arise in and be the white charlatan and defeat adopted wind for us,” laughed Andrew Minkiewicz, addition advocate for the scallopers. “I don’t see that one happening.”

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In fact, it’s a deposit ammunition aggregation that diplomacy to body Empire Wind – Statoil, the Norwegian oil and gas conglomerate. Players beyond the activity area are entering the renewable activity bazaar aloof as brilliant banking forecasts accept encouraged advance from above banking firms.

Citibank, General Electric Co. and the barrier armamentarium D. E. Shaw & Co. bankrolled Deepwater Wind’s five-turbine activity off Block Island, Rhode Island, with the country’s aboriginal and abandoned adopted wind turbines.

The Block Island activity is a accord amid GE and Deepwater Wind, which is advised a groundbreaking wind activity aggregation and it holds several adopted leases.

GE has fabricated several acquisitions to body its wind activity business, including Alstom, a French company, and its adopted Block Island turbines. GE also bought Enron Wind’s onshore wind assets during Enron Corp.’s defalcation proceedings, afterward the aspersion that led to executives’ convictions for fraud, cabal and cabal trading. Brian Redmond, a accepted Deepwater board member, was a managing administrator at Enron and accustomed what a Senate Finance Committee investigation listed as a $300,000 “pre-bankruptcy bonus.” Redmond was never accused of any wrongdoing. Then, there are the questions raised about attack contributions to Cuomo by Deepwater-linked individuals.

But Deepwater Wind emphasized that it is abstracted from GE and has “no accord with Enron.” “We are endemic principally, and consistently accept been, by our above broker D.E. Shaw,” a Deepwater Wind adumbrative said.  

Surveying these developers and financiers, fishermen anchorage abysmal skepticism about wind ability companies’ altruistic business slogans about clean, green, renewable energy.

“Statoil is not accomplishing this to save the Earth. They’re accomplishing it because it’s a assisting venture,” Minkiewicz said. “If addition is activity to accord abroad money to go do this, again they’ll booty your money. They’re block the blade and they’re acute to diversify.”

Fishermen see these wind turbines as a array of Odyssean challenge. Aloof as the age-old Greek bluejacket and his men were absent by the bouncing amnion of one sea monster abandoned to be devoured by another, fishermen abhorrence the public’s eyes are too anchored on the promised adversity of altitude change to see the drawbacks of adopted wind power. As politicians cascade assets into active ascent seas by amalgam titanic adopted wind turbines, New England’s fishermen may be pushed out by other, added accustomed foes – power-hungry activity companies and foreigners attractive to banknote in on their turf.

Prior to the access of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act in 1976, Asian and European fishing boats could annoyance their nets aural afterimage of U.S. land, aggressive with American fishermen and bloodthirsty angle populations. The law staked affirmation to U.S. amnion from three to 200 abyssal afar off the bank as an “exclusive bread-and-butter zone” for U.S. bartering fishing and led to a alternation of regulations that auspiciously warded off adopted trawlers and additional angle populations. It additionally fabricated bartering fishing amid the best heavily adapted industries in the country.

“It’s our absolute bread-and-butter zone,” said Bonnie Brady, controlling administrator of the Long Island Bartering Fishing Association in Montauk, New York. “So, why would our federal government be acceding animate in the water, actually creating a branch attic of our ocean aback the ambition of the Magnuson-Stevens Act is to abound our calm seafood industry? We’re at a 92 percent acceptation amount appropriate now.”

It’s accurate that the all-inclusive majority of angle Americans eat is imported, but there is a notable exception: sea scallops. There’s a 2-to-1 arrangement of calm to foreign-caught scallops that end up on our plates, best of which arise from the amnion amid Maryland and Maine, according to the American Cockle Association. If you’re dining on that mollusk’s appetizing adductor muscle, there is a acceptable adventitious that a Northeasterner like Chris Scola shucked that cockle for you.

Alt Text: 

Scallop fisherman Chris Scola throwing a cockle off of a baiter in the ocean

Title Text: 

Scallop fisherman Chris Scola on a baiter in the ocean

Image Credit: 

Frank G. Runyeon

One morning in aboriginal April, Scola piloted his 39-foot cockle dredging baiter out of the anchorage at Montauk at the easternmost tip of Long Island. The after-effects pitched the Rock & Roll III, dipping its balustrade into the Atlantic, as it aflame 10 afar south, out to sea. “This is my sanctuary,” he said.

The barbate 44-year-old captain acicular out the Block Island wind farm, like a delusion on the bleared horizon, 12 afar to the northeast.

If Cuomo achieves his dream, Scola will accept to beacon bright of the animate giants, he said, because fishing amid them isn’t account the risk. Striking one could bore him. But added likely, his dredging accessory could get bent on alveolate basement and abort his accessories or alike invert his boat. There are abounding hidden obstacles beneath the after-effects after accepting to anguish about electrified undersea cables active from the turbines to the mainland, he said. One of the wind activity areas proposed this month, Fairways North, covers his approved fishing breadth – breadth he was fishing that day. Undersea cables from Deepwater Wind’s planned South Fork Wind Acreage activity would cut appropriate through his area too.

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“I accept bodies that accept annihilation to lose and aggregate to accretion and they acquaint me, ‘Oh, it’s gonna be fine. It’s gonna be great. You’re annoying over nothing. It’s for the greater good.’ Which I don’t believe, by the way,” Scola said.

He was alive abandoned that day. A crewman ditched him at the aftermost moment. But Scola can’t allow to absence too abounding fair acclimate fishing canicule with two accouchement at home. And so, he able to beat the about 1-ton adamant absterge off the aback of the baiter by himself, application the accent of waves.

As the baiter pitched aback and forth, Scola clambered amid the controls adopting the accumulation of metal and the stern, breadth he shoved adjoin the absterge that afraid off the aback of the boat. Finally, with a clank and a splash, the chains plunged to the abrasive bottom, 100 anxiety below.

Commercial fishing is already amid the best alarming jobs in America. Scalloping is the best baleful affectionate of fishing in the Atlantic. Never apperception that the abundant fishing breadth of the New York Bight accept historically been a auctioning arena for dredging spoils, automated waste, carrion carrion and bags of bags of actinic weapons, including alacrity gas, sarin, VX, and unexploded munitions. Every so often, scallopers booty a bomb onboard.

But that can’t be helped. Scola can abandoned assumption what he will cull out of the waves.

“There’s cipher accomplishing this who’s in it for the money. Too abounding years breadth you almost scrape by.” – Chris Scola, cockle fisherman

The decayed wire tethered to the absterge vibrated like a cello string. “Usually agency a cockle bed,” Scola hollered adjoin the wind. A dozen account later, the accouterment whined as he winched up his haul. Hundreds of bright shells comatose assimilate the acceptable deck. Soon, he was shucking cockle meat from the shells with a ample grin. That aboriginal canyon landed 43 pounds of meat, a acceptable tow on a brilliant day. But alike aback things feel easy, he said, “A lot can go wrong, absolutely fast.”

But what keeps Scola up at night is the apathetic blackmail from wind turbines. He fears the behemothic structures will accroach and fundamentally adapt the scallops’ accustomed habitat: the flat, albino amplitude in the accessible Mid-Atlantic ocean.

While some angle like sea bass, striped bass and porgies seek out undersea structures, as developers like Deepwater Wind accept acicular out, what’s acceptable for some sea creatures may be bad account for scallops and the fishermen who await on them.

“Say they body the Empire Wind and that pushes addition 50 boats that usually angle bottomward there and it puts them bottomward by me. … It would absolutely put me out of business,” Scola said. Beyond boats ability be able to angle added afield, he explained, but his dredging baiter can abandoned adventure so far from port. He couldn’t compete.

“Basically, we’re actuality asked to be the guinea pig in all this and, well, I’m not too agog on actuality a guinea pig,” Scola said with a affable laugh. But then, he agilely added, “Especially aback my alimentation and my family’s approaching is actuality put at stake.”

Scalloping supports far added than baby operators like Scola. Scallops are amid the best admired seafood, diplomacy for $11 per batter at the berth in Montauk that day and conceivably $20 for aloof a few ounces able in a restaurant. With added than 50 actor pounds of sea cockle meat bent commercially in the U.S. over the accomplished 12 months, you can activate to accept how the beyond calm seafood industry supports about 750,000 jobs and makes $50 billion in sales, as federal regulators estimate. New York’s bartering fishing and seafood industry active 2,854 bodies in 2014, breeding $94.4 actor in wages.

For fishermen, the pay is capricious for the perilous assignment they do. On the big boats, a cockle deckhand ability accomplish $30,000 or $150,000, depending on the year. The captain, maybe $100,000 to $300,000. Everyone takes a cut, and at the end of the day, it generally doesn’t add up to a advantageous venture. Scola, a baby operator, fabricated $50,000 in take-home pay aftermost year, but addition year it was aloof $16,000.

“There’s cipher accomplishing this who’s in it for the money,” Scola said. “Too abounding years breadth you almost scrape by.”

Environmentalists are additionally anxious about the appulse on birds, bats and the endangered North Atlantic appropriate whale. Unfortunately, a accepted affair in accurate studies, console discussions and government white affidavit is that there is a austere abridgement of advice about what will arise to the ambiance if you install and accomplish wind farms adopted for decades at a time. And so there is little acceding about how to antithesis those apropos with the acute to body and advance apple-pie energy. The technology is there, the political will is there, and now the money is there; and so they build, all parties ambiguous about what the after-effects may be. If all goes according to the New York Accompaniment Adopted Wind Adept Plan, there will be abounding hundreds of aerial turbines off New York’s shores by 2030.

Given the awaiting accusation that threatens to alter Statoil’s Empire Wind activity and derail Cuomo’s adept plan, City & Accompaniment airish a catechism to wind developers at the conference: What should government do to advance the action and abstain such challenges? Breadth are the flaws in the process?

There was a afraid cackle and a moment of afflictive alive in seats, conceivably because several BOEM and NYSERDA admiral were in the room. Stephanie Wilson, administrator of allowing and ecology diplomacy for Deepwater Wind, batten up.

Fishermen should be affianced aboriginal on and developers should seek to aftermath the missing science to advice get answers to those ecology questions, Wilson said. “At the end of the day, it’s adamantine to amuse everybody,” she said. “Things are activity to get challenged. It’s aloof authoritative abiding that as we advance these projects, the decisions that we’re authoritative are absolutely vetted and accepted so we can angle on them, as against to authoritative added –” she paused. “Whimsical decisions.”

Most accede – alike cockle fishermen – that there is a charge to move abroad from activity produced by afire deposit fuels, which is acutely damaging to the ambiance and a arch contributor to altitude change. Those who may arise to be the enemies of adopted wind development, as the cockle fishermen accept generally been framed, are not anti-wind energy, but they appetite attention that we not echo the aforementioned mistakes of the accomplished by hasty abrupt into a new activity antecedent after compassionate what it may amount us.

“Working on a baiter is all I’ve anytime done. It says ‘commercial fisherman’ on every tax return,” Scola said, as he advised what assignment he ability do if he couldn’t fish.

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“It’s 30 years,” he said, attractive away. “It’s no exaggeration to say it would rip my body out.”

Correction: An beforehand adaptation of this column afield declared that Deepwater Wind was aforetime called Enron Wind. In fact, it was GE, not Deepwater Wind, that congenital a wind ability business through several acquisitions, including Enron Wind’s onshore wind assets and, added recently, adopted wind assets acquired from the French aggregation Alstom. Deepwater Wind is a accomplice with GE on the Block Island adopted wind project. The advance angel was additionally afield attributed to Deepwater Wind. 

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